Black holes

Curiosity is welcome here!

Our universe is a beautiful place, it contains everything that we know about and everything that we aspire to know about. It gave us birth and one day, unfortunately, will bestow upon us death. There are an infinite number of secrets hidden inside the cosmos and this blog is entirely dedicated to uncovering as many that are humanly possible.

Black Holes

What is a black hole? A black hole is a celestial entity with an infinite amount of gravitational force. This happens as it has an infinite amount of mass compressed into a small 1-dimensional point called a singularity. Due to this it warps the fabric of spacetime (will be discussed in another post) so much that not even light can escape its gravitational pull once it crosses a certain point.

                                   The effect of the mass of a black hole on spacetime

Formation:

We all have heard at least a little bit about what a black hole is and what it can do, but very few know about its formation.

Everything begins with the death of a star. 

Stars have a continuous chemical reaction going on within them, hydrogen combines with hydrogen to form helium, helium combines with helium to form carbon and so on. This continuous process releases energy in the form of radiation.

This radiation released by the star keeps a balance with the amount of gravity the star has. Hence, preventing the star from collapsing in itself.

                      The balance between a stars gravity and its radiation

Slowly and steadily the elements inside the star keep combining to form heavier elements. When this series reaches the formation of iron, here comes the problem. The reaction that creates iron does not release any energy, so when a lot of iron gets accumulated at the core, the gravity and radiation balance is broken.

Gravity overpowers the star’s radiation and the star collapses in itself, also creating a supernova explosion.

Now, depending on the size of the star there are two things that can happen, A neutron star might form or if the star is dense enough a black hole is formed.

Components:

  • Event Horizon: The boundary around a black hole beyond which nothing traveling at the speed of light or slower than the speed of light can escape. In other words the point of no return.
  • Singularity: The 1-dimensional point inside a black hole which is known to have an infinite density and gravity.
  • Accretion disk: A rotating disk of matter formed around the black hole under the influence of its gravity.
  • Ergosphere: The region around a black hole through which energy is able to escape.

What’s inside a black hole?

Let us assume that somehow you got yourself inside a black hole(highly unlikely), what would happen to you? Let’s find out.

Well, the time taken to die painfully will vary according to the size of the black hole. The larger the black hole is the more time you have to live as the singularity would be farther from the event horizon, and smaller the black hole the lesser time you have to live.

Once inside the black hole, observers (if any) will see the light reflected off you red-shifting. This is a phenomenon observed while looking at far away galaxies, this shows that the object reflecting the light is moving farther away.

Once you get closer to the singularity your body will start going through a process called spaghettification. The gravitational pull would be so high here that it would be stronger for every cell in your body that is closer to the singularity. Eventually your body would elongate like spaghetti (hence the term) and would eventually rip you apart.

This could be one of your fates, but as nobody actually knows what would happen if you entered into a black hole we can hypothesize it to be anything.

There are various possibilities:

  1. It could be a connection to another dimension
  2. It could be the path to another universe
  3. It could lead us to a different part of our universe
  4. It could maybe take us into the past

Anything could be possible!

The Death of a black hole:

Everything that is in this universe is eventually going to die. Some may take longer to perish and some might get destroyed the minute they are born.

To understand the death of a black we’re going to have to understand the concept of Hawking radiation, and to understand the concept of Hawking radiation we will have to look at the universe at a quantum level.

The universe may seem to be empty in a lot of places but if we zoom in close enough we can observe things called virtual particle pairs popping into existence and annihalating each other relesing some energy the second they are born. These pairs consist of a virtual particle and it’s virtual anti-particle.

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When these pairs of virtual particles spawn on the event horizon of a black hole, one of them gets sucked in and the other is spewed out. 

When these particles get seperated the one spewed out is turned into a real particle. Now, from where will the virtual particle get the energy to change into a real particle. The answer is from the black hole itself!

nn_hawking_radiation

This process keeps happening on the edge of a black hole every second and trillions of virtual particles are getting converted into real particles through this process at this very moment! 

This is how slowly and steadily black holes lose their mass and eventually die. The larger the black hole the lesser it is affected by this process and the smaller the black hole the more it is affected by this process. Hence, very small black holes cant physically exist.

The End of our universe:

It is hypothesized that black holes will be the last celestial bodies to exist in the dying universe, all the matter that exist should eventually end up inside a black hole, and as information cannot be destroyed (will be discussed in another post), the information of all the matter in our universe has to go somewhere. Where?

 

Picture credits:

  • https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjPycC15NnfAhVEso8KHblrDfEQjB16BAgBEAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.armaghplanet.com%2Fblog%2Fblack-holes.html&psig=AOvVaw0JZPjCeYJRKOn67-lREoyA&ust=1546885692839070
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  • No Copywright intended
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No copywright was intended for all pictures

 

10 thoughts on “Black holes

  1. Love reading your blogs Kulvir.It is described in such a interesting way that it hold us to learn more about universe from you.Keep posting.

  2. Awesome I liked it. So much to learn! most interesting. Please continue posting I’m looking forward to this😊

  3. Kulvir,
    This is an excellent but a simplified presentation of a very complex astrophysical
    Topic and you surely deserve high marks for this scholarly writing. In college physics and calculus were my favorite majors. I also have british physicist Stephen Hawking’s book about time and space.
    Congratulations
    Fua Saheb
    Fort myers

  4. Superb, Kulvir. Even though much of this material is not entirely new to me, it proves to be an interesting read.

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